Affordable Solar Rooftop: Bangalore | On Grid Solar | Off grid Solar

Solar Rooftop

Overview

Solar Rooftops are solar power plants installed on the rooftop to produce electricity from Sun rays.Solar Rooftops can be installed for either Residential or Commercial purpose.

Because of its modular nature, the solar panels can be customized to suit the needs of the customers.

The major components of a Rooftop Solar are:

  • Solar Panels – The Solar panels contains the photovoltaic cells that capture the sunlight and convert it into Direct current(DC)
  • Inverter / Power conditioning unit – Inverter enables Direct Current(DC) to usable Alternating Current(AC) conversion. 
  • Battery – These are needed to store the power generated from the solar panels or any surplus from the indoors. Tubular Lead Acid, C-10 rated batteries are used.
  • Solar Regulator – That regulates the flow of current between solar panels and the battery.
  • Other hardware accessories/services needed to ensure smooth operations
    • Lightning Arrester (to protect the Solar PV from lighting effects)
    • Electric Meters / Remote Monitoring Devices
    • Additional VRLA / Lithium Batteries
    • Solar Net-Metering services with Electricity Boards as per the state policy.

How it Works

The solar panels convert solar energy to Direct Current (DC) and the inverters(Power conditioning unit) convert Direct Current(DC) to Alternating Current (AC) to power up the building with or without the grid current.

Power Output of the Solar Rooftop

Power outputs for Solar rooftops are small compared to ground mounted Photovoltaic systems. Output for Residential purposes can be in the range of 10-20 Kilowatts and the power output for commercial purposes can reach 100 KW and more.

Different types of Solar PV systems

1) Direct or direct-coupled systems

These are the systems where the DC output of the solar pv is connected to the DC load. These are the simplest type of Solar PV systems – Only components are PV and a load. This can be used for fans, water pumping systems and other equipments that use Direct current.

2) Grid-tied or Utility-Interactive PV systems

These systems are directly connected to the grid and work in tandem with the grid. This systems work in 2 ways :

  1. In case of surplus power generated by the Solar PV system the excess power is supplied to the grid and
  2. In case of a higher demand for power/electricity surplus current is drawn from the grid.

They are easy to install and maintain since there are no batteries used in this case and the grid functions as a virtual battery. These systems use Grid-tied inverters for the 2 way electric flow.

These systems disconnect from the grid whenever there is no grid power to ensure safety (Also known as Anti-islanding)

3) Off-grid systems 

These are the systems that work independently of the grid. This kind of a system is usually used for remote homes to power up an entire building for the required load. There are batteries used to store the electricity generated by the solar pv system. In case of extra power needed other backup devices like diesel generators are used.

4) Grid Interactive PV systems

These type of systems is a combination of both Grid-tied and Off-grid systems. In this case, the inverters will produce as much power as possible when operating in utility interactive mode. When the utility is interrupted, the inverters disconnect from the grid and switch to standalone mode and make as much power as the load needs.

There are 2 basic types of stand alone PV systems:

DC coupled systems

These are most common and simple off grid systems. The main components used are:

  • Solar modules
  • Charge controller
  • Battery
  • Inverter

In DC-coupled systems, the Solar output is connected to the DC side of PV system. The harvested solar energy first flows to a battery bank via a charge controller and then to AC loads via a battery based inverter.

Generally, they are not able to store the grid power.

The flow is like this: PV Array -> Charge Controller -> Battery Bank <-> Battery-Based Inverter <-> AC Loads <-> Utility

Note that the battery-based inverter in this application is responsible for disconnecting the local electrical system from the utility.

AC Coupled systems

In AC-coupled systems, the Solar output is connected to the AC side of PV system. The current generated by the solar panels, first passes through the batteryless inverter which converts DC to AC. This is used by the AC loads through the AC load panel. Any extra current generated is stored into the battery bank using the battery inverters or supplied to grid in case of grid tied systems.

AC Coupled systems are complicated and are less common. They use 2 types of inverters used.

  • Battery Inverters
  • Grid Tied inverters

Generally a grid-tied inverter would not work in case there is no grid power, but with the battery inverter it synchronizes with it. Battery inverters create voltage so that grid tied inverters can work when there is no utility.

Main components used are

  • Solar modules
  • Grid tied inverters or batteryless inverter
  • Off grid inverter or battery inverter
  • Batteries

The existing grid tied system can be converted to this with a battery backup without much changes to the existing systems wiring. This system is  a lot more efficient compared to the battery based system since most of the conversion happens through the grid tied inverter.

Standard Basic Specifications for Solar RoofTop Power Plant [Without – Battery]

  1.  Polycrystalline Solar Panels
  2. Solar Inverter + Solar Charge Controller
  3. MPPT : Maximum Power Point Tracker
  4. Standard Mounting Structure.
  5. Standard Wiring : 30 mtrs.

Standard Basic Specifications for #SolarRooftopPower Plant [With – Battery]

  1. Polycrystalline Solar Panels
  2. Solar Inverter + Solar Charge Controller
  3. MPPT : Maximum Power Point Tracker
  4. Standard Mounting Structure.
  5. Tubular Lead Acid, C-10 rated batteries.

Factors influencing power output of Solar rooftops are

  • Time of the year
  • Latitude
  • Weather conditions
  • Roof slope
  • Roof direction

Basic Installation Requirements :

  1. Preferably Flat RCC Roof with Unshaded Area [ No shadow from neighbouring buildings ]
  2. Base Structure / RCC Roof should withstand weight of at least 120kg / KW.
  3. Rooftop Area required less than 90Sqft / KW.
  4. Panels will be facing South direction only

Requirements to set up the Rooftop

  • Energy Requirements and Savings – Look at the current energy usage and see if the energy consumption can be reduced using efficient appliances. Based on the energy requirements and target savings one can choose a Solar PV equipment customized to suit the customer.
  • The cost of the solar PV system. This is directly related to the energy requirements of the customer and the make of the system.
  • Space requirements for the Solar equipment – This depends on the efficiency of the solar PV system, more the efficient the system, lesser the space required. Our systems can be accommodated with Rooftop Area required less than 90Sqft / KW
  • The base Structure / RCC Roof should withstand a weight of at least 120kg / KW.
  • Location – The Solar PV system should be placed in a location to collect maximum sunlight for conversion. Ask a few questions to ask would be:
    • Is there good southern exposure? Orienting solar panels to the south maximizes the effectiveness of energy collection.
    • Is the exposure free of trees or buildings that could shade the panels on them?
    • If the solar PV system is to be installed on the roof, then is the roof in the right location to receive good amount of sunlight? Does it have the right tilt to sufficient sunlight? An important thing to remember – The angle of the rooftop has less impact on solar panel performance than the direction the roof faces.
  • Vendor- Check out for the right vendor with the expertise involved in installing solar rooftops.
  • Permits and Incentives – Look at Subsidies available from the government, usage of Net Metering and other incentives available
  • The angle of inclination of the solar panels is based on the inclination of the rooftop. If the roof is flat then the rooftop panels can be installed at an angle for optimum exposure to sunlight.
  • Solar Rooftops can be installed for either Residential or Commercial purpose. Output for the Residential purpose can be in the range of 10-20 Kilowatts and the power output for commercial purposes can reach 100 KW and more.

If you need any sort of enquiry